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  • The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.


  • The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued into the 15th century.


  • The Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, although campaigns were also waged against pagan Slavs, pagan Balts, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes.


  • Crusaders took vows and were granted penance for past sins, often called an indulgence.
  • Indulgences started the Reformation and all the changes to the Church.

SiegeofAntioch.jpeg

Siege of Antioch, medieval miniature painting

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