- You are justified by Faith
For the Lutheran tradition, the doctrine of salvation by grace alone through faith alone for Christ's sake alone is the material principle upon which all other teachings rest.
- Relationship between Law and Gospel
The "proper distinction" between Law and Gospel. He believed that this principle of interpretation was an essential starting point in the study of the scriptures.
- Priesthood of all believers
Luther developed the notion of all believers being "part of one body" as a means to claim the priesthood of all believers.
- The Two Kingdoms
Martin Luther's doctrine of the two kingdoms (or two reigns) of God teaches that God is the ruler of the whole world and that he rules in two ways.
He rules the earthly or left-hand kingdom through secular government, by means of law (i.e., the sword or force) and in the heavenly or righthand kingdom (his spiritual kingdom, that is, Christians and the Church) through the gospel or grace.
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